[objective?] Sugar mill filter mud fermented into h biological organic fertilizer of high humic acid content. It was rich resource utilization which not only be able to solve mud pollution to the environment, but also be able to solve problem of soil fertility decline and promote the agricultural production to achieve sustainable development. ?method? The representative regions selected to fermentation production of biological organic fertilizer and using the method of field experiment. It was studied the characteristics of fermentation production of biological organic fertilizer and fertilizer effect. ?results? The rotting process of functional bacteria fermentation production of biological organic fertilizer was less affected by environmental factors, the effect of fermentation stability, and it took only 20-25 d to complete a rotting process. Fermentation temperature was up to 77.2 ? , and it was maintain a long period of time which more than 15 days generally at 60 ? ~ 77.2 ?. Functional bacteria fermentation production of biological organic fertilizer production organic components, such as bacteria protease, after fermentation of organic matter content and organic acid conversion rate increased by 30.2 and 12.3%(absolute value) respectively. The field experiment results show that the influence of the treatment applied functional bacteria fermentation production of biological organic fertilizer processing was greater than applied amount of traditional (natural) fermentation biological organic fertilizer processing, and it increased crops production yield of 28.9 kg/mu or 7.8%, 1491.9 kg/mu or 41.2% and 511.7 kg/mu or 6.9%, respectively on rice, cucumber and sugarcane. Five years in the field experimental results, the processing of functional bacteria fermentation biological organic fertilizer were compared to a traditional biological organic fertilizer (natural) fermentation processing high in soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium content. Utilization rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were 39.3%, 12.8% and 39.3% respectively, compared with traditional (natural) fermentation biological organic fertilizer processing of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium utilization rates increased by 18.3%, 2.2% and 21.6% (absolute value), and increased by 15.0%, 4.5% and 30.8% (absolute value) than the only chemical fertilizers treatment. ?conclusion? The functional bacteria fermentation production of biological organic fertilizer than traditional (natural) fermentation biological organic fertilizer, it was rotting speedily, fermentation temperature was highest to keep maintain advantages such as longer time. And after fermentation of organic matter content and organic acid conversion, the obvious advantages occur. At the same time, also be able to increase production and improve the effect of soil fertility and fertilizer utilization rate.